Linux and Unix Copy files

To copy a directory with all subdirectories and files, use the cp command. Below is an example command of how you would use the cp command to copy files. Additional information about this command and other examples are available through the above cp link.

cp -r /home/hope/files/* /home/hope/backup

In the example above, the cp command would copy all files, directories, and subdirectories in the /home/hope/files directory to the /home/hope/backup directory.


Copy a folder called /tmp/conf to /tmp/backup:

cp -avr /tmp/conf/ /tmp/backup

-a : Preserve the specified attributes such as directory an file mode, ownership, timestamps, if possible additional attributes: context, links, xattr, all.

-v : Explain what is being done.

-r : Copy directories recursively. Example

Letsencrypt (Certbot) Generate The Wildcard SSL Certificate

Now with the help of Certbot will generate wildcard certificate for our test domain

sudo certbot certonly --manual --preferred-challenges=dns --email --server --agree-tos -d *

After executing the above command, the Certbot will share a text record to add to your DNS.

Please deploy a DNS TXT record under the name with the following value:


Then you will receive:

Press Enter to Continue
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges

 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   Your key file has been saved at:
  Your cert will expire on 2019-08-31. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot
   again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "certbot renew"
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:
   Donating to EFF:          


Ubuntu 14.04 – PHP Version Upgraded

php -v


PHP (cli)
Copyright (c) 1997-2016 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.6.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2016 Zend Technologies
with Zend OPcache v7.0.6-dev, Copyright (c) 1999-2016, by Zend Technologiescode

In the page the php code phpinfo();


PHP Version 5.5.9-1ubuntu4.19

Now to correct this you need to:

sudo a2dismod php5
sudo a2enmod php5.6
sudo service apache2 restart


Install PHP Composer

1) Update your packages:

sudo apt-get update

2) Install the curl utility:

sudo apt-get install curl

3) Download the installer:

sudo curl -s | php

4) Move the composer.phar file:

sudo mv composer.phar /usr/local/bin/composer

5) Use the composer command to test the installation. If Composer is installed correctly, the server will respond with a long list of help information and commands:

user@localhost:~# composer
  / ____/___  ____ ___  ____  ____  ________  _____
 / /   / __ \/ __ `__ \/ __ \/ __ \/ ___/ _ \/ ___/
/ /___/ /_/ / / / / / / /_/ / /_/ (__  )  __/ /
\____/\____/_/ /_/ /_/ .___/\____/____/\___/_/
Composer version 1.3.2 2017-01-27 18:23:41

  command [options] [arguments]

  -h, --help                     Display this help message
  -q, --quiet                    Do not output any message